Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report. Many of the references you use will come from published sources. Some may come from electronic sources such as the World Wide Web, Melvyl and Harvest databases available through the UC Davis library, CD references and the like, and some may come from interviews.
Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal.
That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature. A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information. Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there.
Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble.
Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblickin Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.
Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e. Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:EasyBib — your online writing hub All the tools to submit your paper with confidence.
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Writing a list of references. At the end of all pieces of academic writing, you need a list of materials that you have used or referred to.
This usually has a heading: referencesbut may be bibliographyor works citeddepending on the conventions of the system you use.
The object of your writing is for you to say something for yourself using the ideas of . leslutinsduphoenix.com: 10 Steps in Writing the Research Paper (Barron's 10 Steps in Writing the Research Paper) (): Peter Markman, Alison L. Heney Ph.D., Roberta Markman Ph.D., Marie L. Waddell: Books.
This guide includes instructional pages on reference list entries in APA style. Term Paper: Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction. As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report.