The war swings decisively against the French Empire The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from to pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon Iagainst a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitionsfinanced and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Spanish American wars of independence Spanish colonialization in the Americas.
The Libertadores Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators" were the principal leaders of the Spanish American wars of independence. They were predominantly criollos Americas-born people of European ancestry, mostly Spanish or Portuguesebourgeois and influenced by liberalism and in some cases with military training in the mother country.
In the first declarations of independence from Spanish rule occurred in the Viceroyalty of New Granada. In Mexico declared independence, with the Mexican War of Independence following for over a decade. The Plan of Iguala was part of the peace treaty to establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico.
These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas.
The ideas from the French and the American Revolution influenced the efforts. All of the colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, attained independence by the s.
The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. Spanish possession and rule of its remaining colonies in the Americas ended in that year with its sovereignty transferred to the United States.
Puerto Rico continues to be a possession of the United States, now officially continues as a self-governing unincorporated territory. Demographic impact[ edit ] It has been estimated that over 1. Cook — was the most painstakingly careful researcher. From decades of research he made estimates for the pre-contact population and the history of demographic decline during the Spanish and post-Spanish periods.
According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, inwas aboutand had dropped to 25, by The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, during the Mexican and US periods of Californian history —with the most dramatic collapseto 25, occurring in the US period —Imagining the American West in the Late Nineteenth Century.
Hana Layson and Scott M. Stevens. Historian Richard White describes Turner and Buffalo Bill (William F. Cody) as “the two master narrators” of the American West.
Each articulated powerful, if conflicting, stories: “Turner’s history was one of free land, the essentially peaceful occupation of a largely empty continent, and the creation of a unique American identity.
In dentistry: Dentistry in 19th-century Europe. In English dentist Sir John Tomes led the formation of the first dental organization in England, the Odontological Society. It was through the activity of this group that the Royal Dental Hospital of London was established in American Indian: American Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere.
Eskimos (Inuit and Yupik/Yupiit) and Aleuts are often excluded from this category, because their closest genetic and cultural relations were and are with other Arctic peoples rather than with the groups to their.
The Spanish conquest of Mexico is generally understood to be the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire (–21) which was the base for later conquests of other regions.
Later conquests were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than the conquest of the Aztecs. The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, , and ended on December 31, The 19th century was a period of social change. Slavery was abolished, and the Second Industrial Revolution led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity.
European imperialism brought much .