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The paper gives a brief introduction on the concept of motivation, motives, theories that describe the principle of motivation, types and classification of motives, types of motivation namely intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
It further gives a brief historical background of intrinsic motivation, literature review on major findings on intrinsic motivation, and current issues on the topic touching on traits of people who are intrinsically motivated. Motivation refers to arousal or tendency to act in producing an effect.
According to Hayamizu, TMyer defines motivation as: The motives, needs or desires that serve to energize behavior directing it towards a goal. It can also be defined as those phenomenons which are involved in stimulation of action towards particular objectives where previously, there was little or no interest or movement towards those goals.
Motivation is therefore more or less a hypothetical concept ingrained in an individual. It is motives that arouse an organism to engage in any activity and to sustain interest for a given period of time in that particular activity.
It is motives that directs and regulate behavior towards a goal. Examples of classification of motives include: Cognitive motives which refer to the motives within an individual directed by values, goals and principles.
Self expression motives are those directing an individual primarily to acquire adequate knowledge, develop the ability to master and solve problems pertaining to a given concept.
Affiliative motives are those that bring about the desire to establish, maintain or restore relationships which may be a friendly or affectionate relationship or the need for approval and co-operation with others. Several theories have been advanced in the understanding of the principle of motivation.
F Skinner, the Behaviorist perspective emphasizes that people are motivated by the need to obtain reinforces and to avoid punishment. This perspective therefore advocates for the use of rewards and incentives as a form of reinforcement. The Humanistic perspective developed by Abraham Maslow states that people are motivated by conscious desire for personal growth.
Maslow believed that humans have the inherent desire and the capacity to self actualize which is a self initiated striving for one to become whatever one believes he is capable of being, Bateman, S. There are two principal types of motivation, namely Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivation result from externally elicited rewards such as better salary, prestige, power. Conversely, intrinsic motivation comes from within an individual.
One derives pleasure from the activity or task he is engaged in making it internal. Brief History of Intrinsic Motivation Much effort was put into the study of intrinsic motivation in the 20th century; however Bateman, S. During this period, most professional psychologists advocated for behavior modification programs as a way of coercing individual to adopt a desired behavior.
These programs largely advocated for the use of external reward and punishment. The emergence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as opposing concepts continued to be seen by most researchers as they sought to establish the extent to which internal orientation and drives affected performance in comparison to external manipulations.
There has been historical controversy on whether extrinsic motivation undermines intrinsic motivation, Bateman, S.- Chapter-2 Review of literature Motivation: Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior as studied in economics, psychology and neuropsychology.
These reasons may include basic needs such as food or desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being or ideal. Theories of Motivation Although the term _theory_ is used in motivation theory, no single recognized theory of motivation exists.
Rather, _motivation_ is used as an umbrella term for a number of theories that describe factors, traits, or situations that result in people moving beyond awareness and . Motivation and Eating Healthy Psychologists describe motivation or goals as cognitive representations of a desirable outcome that move a person into action.
Dieting, eating healthy, exercising, and achieving good looks and health are all related to the goal of weight-control. Motivation and the Brain Paper Table of Contents Introduction: 3 Analyze the brain structures: 3 Brain functions: 4 Motivation to engage in eating healthy behavior: 5 Conclusion: 6 References: 8 Introduction: Motivation is a phenomenon in which the brain and physical function are involved through emotional and reflexes.
Motivation Leadership Power and politics Essay. Introduction. Every human experience involves a causative factor that produces a kind of response - Motivation Leadership Power and politics Essay introduction. In explaining the behavior of people, we start our description with reference to some kind of active driving force: the individual seeks, the individual wants, the individual fears.
Aug 22, · Find essays and research papers on Psychology at leslutinsduphoenix.com We've helped millions of students since • Define psychology and describe the goals that psychologists hope to achieve. • Describe the history of psychology.
Psychology and Specific Achievement Motivation; Abnormal Psychology Timeline - .