The following two positions will be admitted without question, it is believed, by all Christians. If the doctrine of endless punishment be, as affirmed by its believers, absolutely and indispensably necessary to the preservation of virtue, and to perfect obedience to the laws of God; if this be the salutary and saving influence of the doctrine, then it constitutes one of the strongest possible reasons for its being revealed to man at the very earliest period of the world's history. If endless punishment be true, it is terribly true to all those who are in danger, - wherein is found another powerful reason why it should have been made known in the clearest manner, on the very morning of creation! In the clearest manner:
The Seljuk Turks were originally an Asian horde which, like the Huns of earlier times, had penetrated far into the West. By the eleventh century the Seljuk Turks controlled much of the Levant.
With Persia in their control, including Baghdad, the capital of the Moslem world, they presented a terrifying prospect: Byzantine concern turned to panic when Turkish forces began expanding into eastern Asia Minor modern Turkey.
Casting about for help and finding none nearby, they were forced to go for their last resort, appealing for aid from the Catholic West. This tension grew to such a pitch that, by the middle of the eleventh century during the 's CEthey splintered into separate sects: The result was that, by the time of the Crusades, the Christians of Western Europe belonged to a different religion from their brethren in the Middle East.
To re-open the channels of communication between these former allies who did not speak the same language and had not fought side-by-side for centuries seemed difficult, but with Islamicized Mongols poised on Byzantium's borders, this was the only option. The Turkish situation affected Western Europeans as well.
Direct contacts between Moslems and Western Europeans at this time were largely the result of Christian pilgrims making their way to Jerusalem and the Holy Places.
Before the Turkish takeover, Moslems had not actively encumbered pilgrims coming and going. As Byzantine-Turkish antagonism increased in the late eleventh century, it had become difficult for Christian pilgrims to pass through Asia Minor and Syria to reach the Holy Lands.
Writing to the Church in Rome, he intentionally spread stories some aparently invented of Turkish atrocities against Christians in Asia Minor. He added the inducement of reunifying the recently severed Eastern and Western Churches.
This program of measures was part of the Church's attempt to limit warfare within Christendom. In Urban's hands, the Truce of God was remolded into a declaration ending all wars in which Christian fought Christian and deflecting European militarism toward what was perceived as the "real" enemy, the Moslem infidels in the East.
Following Urban's ingenious reasoning, the Crusades were the culmination of a "peace" movement. It took some re-reading of the New Testament to find plausible justifications for this new doctrine, but as usual the Holy Book revealed precisely what the Church sought.
Instead of paying penance for murder, killing could spell a sinner's salvation, as long as he slew the right sort of person, an enemy of Christ such as a Jew or a Moslem.
When Urban began to discern how well his new idea was going to work, he took his marketing campaign on the road. In a spell-binding speech before a crowd of Frankish knights, Urban exhorted his adherents to win back "the land of milk and honey" and avenge the Turkish atrocities.
He cited several of the gory details sent him by Alexius Comnenus and ended by bidding them fight "for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of imperishable glory.
Around the turn of the millennium ca. The crusades were a mechanism for tapping off excess population - the first three occured at roughly 40 year intervals - froving outlets and potential spoils for younger sons with inheritances. There were political forces at work too. From the papal perspective, the kings of Europe had long intruded upon the sacred right of the Pope to run his own business ie to choose the men who constituted the Church's administration.
In calling the First Crusade, Urban II shifted the theatre of action in this conflict to an arena where medieval kings had traditionally reigned supreme, the battlefield.
Urban usurped the prerogative of secular rulers to declare an enemy and muster troops for battle. By reinterpreting the Truce of God as a warrant for Europeans to kill Moslems and not each other, he also sought to embarrass secular leaders for all their intra-European wars which were now presented as "un-Christian," in spite of that fact that the Church had for centuries sanctioned European-upon-European carnage.Effects of the Crusades.
Effects of the Crusades The Crusades kept all Europe in a tumult for two centuries, and directly and indirectly cost Christendom several millions of lives (from 2,, to 6,, according to different estimates), besides incalculable expenditures in treasure and suffering.
The Crusades. The Crusades were great military expeditions undertaken by the Christian nations of Europe for the purpose of rescuing the holy places of Palestine from the hands of the Mohammedans.
The Wendish Crusade (German: Wendenkreuzzug) was a military campaign in , one of the Northern Crusades and a part of the Second Crusade, led primarily by the Kingdom of Germany within the Holy Roman Empire and directed against the Polabian Slavs (or "Wends").
The Wends are made up of the Slavic tribes of Abrotrites, Rugians, Liutizians, Wagarians, and Pomeranians who lived east of . Taking children's and family. ministry to the next level! The Jubilee Gang is a fast paced multi media ministry to children and families that travels across the United States conducting kids crusades, family events, kids and family camps, children's ministry training, and outreaches events.
Effects of the Crusades While the Crusades ultimately resulted in defeat for Europeans, many argue that they successfully extended the . Thomas F. Madden is professor and chair of the Department of History at Saint Louis University.
A widely recognized expert on the Crusades and Christian-Muslim conflict, he has written and spoken widely on the topic in such venues as the New York Times, National Public Radio, and leslutinsduphoenix.com is the author of A Concise History of the Crusades, which was a Washington Post Book World Rave selection.